PowerShell Tip: How to remove items from an Array? Yes, it is possible.


Are you trying to figure out how to remove array items from an Array? Were you end up coding a foreach loop & create a new array?

I have an easy way without using new array or foreach loop. Here it is:

$ArrayVar = $ArrayVar | Where-Object{-not($_ -eq 'ItemValue')}

Now to describe how it been used in a code…I created a quick sample code. Note that I was removing two items at once at line number 9.

$SuperHeros = @("Thor","IronMan","AntMan","Hulk","Clint Barton","DeadPool","Captain Marvel","Black Widow")
"Here are the Super Heros:"
$SuperHeros

"`n`nOops..Black Widow and Clint Barton are not really super heros..Remove them at once."
"Yes Sir."

#Remove Black Widow and Clint Barton...Are they Superheros? or side kicks?
$SuperHeros = $SuperHeros | Where-Object {-not(($_ -eq 'Black Widow') -or ($_ -eq 'Clint Barton'))}

"`n`nNew List of SuperHeros:"
$SuperHeros

I ran this code and here is the result:

Here are the Super Heros:
Thor
IronMan
AntMan
Hulk
Clint Barton
DeadPool
Captain Marvel
Black Widow


Oops..Black Widow and Clint Barton are not really super heros..Remove them at once.
Yes Sir.


New List of SuperHeros:
Thor   
IronMan
AntMan
Hulk
DeadPool
Captain Marvel

Hope you like this trick. 😉 Leave me a reply!

PowerShell: Combine CSV files into a single CSV file


I had a need to combine multiple CSV files. And worked for few minutes and came up with this PowerShell method.

Get-ChildItem -Filter *.csv -Path C:\Scripts\CSVFiles | Select-Object -ExpandProperty FullName | Import-Csv | Export-Csv C:\Scripts\CSVFiles\CombinedFile.csv -NoTypeInformation -Append

Idea of this method is

  1. Get the filenames with full path of the CSV files
  2. Import them all
  3. Pipe the import the CSV files to Export-CSV to a file. Note the “-Append” parameter.

Hope this help you too.

CSV Viewer – an awesome Powershell solution


When working with some CSV files in my Windows Servers, I was wondering how can I view the CSV file without installing any third-party viewers.

Here is my one-liner PowerShell solution. I am using Out-GridView with “-Wait” option. Make sure PowerShell Execution Policy is set to run local scripts.

Here is how you do it


Log onto to your Windows Server (or on your local computer).
Open Notepad.

Copy and Paste this code into Notepad:

REM
REM ** SUPER DUPER CSV FILE VIEWER **
REM 
REM ...:::>  Anand, the Awesome  <:::...
Start /Wait Powershell -Command "Import-Csv -Path %1 | Out-GridView -Title %1 -Wait"

Save this file as CSV-Viewer.bat in your favorite location.

Now find a CSV file on your disk, right-click and go to Properties. Change Open With to the CSV-Viewer.bat file that you created in above step.

That’s all. Now try double-clicking on any CSV file. It will open GridView. You can search things in the CSV file, or sort any column or Filter the data.

Exchange: Calendar Folder Permissions and Delegates


There are two kinds of permission for Calendar in Mailbox. A user can have

  • Folder permission to calendar
  • Delegate permissions

Folder permission is used by another user to access the calendar and Delegate permission is given to a user to manage the calendar behalf of the giving user. Both kinds of permission can be given to user from Outlook or by Exchange PowerShell.

How to do it in Outlook?

Folder permission: In Outlook Go to Calendar section, right click on the calendar on the left pane, Choose properties/Permissions.

Delegate permission: In Outlook, click File / Account Settings / Delegate Access.

Detailed Help: https://support.office.com/en-us/article/Allow-someone-else-to-manage-your-mail-and-calendar-41C40C04-3BD1-4D22-963A-28EAFEC25926

How to do it in Exchange Admin Shell?

Open PowerShell and connect to Exchange (or Exchange Online).

Folder Permission:

Give John.Doe@company.com Reviewer access to Jane.Doe@company.com’s calendar.

Add-MailboxFolderPermission -Identity Jane.Doe@company.com:\Calendar -User john.doe@company.com -AccessRights Reviwer

Delegate Access:

Make John.Doe@company.com as Delegate with Editor access to Jane.Doe@company.com’s calendar.

Add-MailboxFolderPermission -Identity Jane.Doe@company.com:\Calendar -User john.doe@company.com -AccessRights Editor -SharingPermissionFlags Delegate 

Detailed Help: https://docs.microsoft.com/en-us/powershell/module/exchange/mailboxes/add-mailboxfolderpermission?view=exchange-ps

Exchange: Mailbox Folder Size Report


As an Exchange Administrator, you can generate a mailbox folder size report for any user. It is extremely helpful if the USER doesn’t know how his/her mailbox is reaching size limit & which FOLDER has most emails.

Well here is the one-liner PowerShell script (Note: Replace username@company.com with user’s email address):

Get-MailboxFolderStatistics username@company.com | Select-Object FolderPath,@{Name="SubFoldersize";Expression={$r=$_.FolderAndSubfolderSize; [int] $a = ($r.Substring($r.IndexOf("(")+1,($r.Length - 2 - $r.IndexOf("("))) -replace " bytes","" -replace ",","") ; $a } } | Sort-Object SubFolderSize -Descending | Select-Object FolderPath,@{Name="Folder-and-Subfolder-Size";Expression={[String] $_.SubFolderSize + " MB"}}

The sample output shows this:

FolderPath                                       Folder-and-Subfolder-Size
 ----------                                       -------------------------
 /Scheduled Reports                               1625 MB
 /incoming Unapproved emails                      1165 MB
 /Audits                                          907 MB
 /Compliants                                      562 MB
 /Policy Violation Compliants                     551 MB
 /Deleted Items                                   482 MB
 /Server Activity Summary                         449 MB
 /VM Approval Requests                            236 MB
 /Approved Requests                               71 MB
 /New Accounts                                    61 MB
 /Profile Review                                  57 MB
 /Authorizations                                  35 MB
 /Rejected Content                                11 MB
 /Sent Items                                      8 MB
 /PersonMetadata                                  6 MB
 /Contacts                                        3 MB
 /Contacts/Recipient Cache                        3 MB
 /Calendar                                        0 MB
 /Drafts                                          0 MB
 /Quick Step Settings                             0 MB

You can export this to CSV file by adding “| Export-CSV -Path .\MBFolderSizeReport.csv -NoTypeInformation”. If it helped you, leave me a “Thanks” in the comments.

Windows Server 2016/2019: Where the hell the time zone settings?


If you are trying right-clicking on Date/Time on task bar, choosing Adjust date/time:

Configure Date, Time and Time Zone settings in Windows Server 2016

And you are stuck at Windows new settings page, where changing the time zone doesn’t take effect. Here you say: “What the HELL?”

So, I say go for old Time settings from control panel to change the time zone. Here is how you can do it:

  • Press Windows Key + R to open the Run dialog.
  • Type “control timedate.cpl

You have been served with the old setting dialog, change the time zone here by clicking on “Change Time Zone” button

Or you can also get here from the Server Manager >> Local Server >> Click on the Timezone..

Hope this blog is useful for you.

Promoting a DC: Error determining whether the target environment require adprep


When you are promoting a new Domain Controller in to an existing Active Directory Forest/Domain, you let the default setting of “Any domain controller” to sync from and you are stuck at promotion process with this error message:

Error determining whether the target environment require adprep:  
Validation error Validation error: Unable to make an LDAP connection to server RandomDC01.company.com 
Exception: The specified server cannot perform the requested operation  Details: Test.VerifyForestUpgradeStatus.ADPrep.Win32Exception.-2147467259

If I choose a closest domain controller manually, you still the ‘freaking’ error message:

Error determining whether the target environment require adprep:
Validation error Validation error: Unable to check forest upgrade status for server ClosestDC1.company.com
Exception: The specified server cannot perform the requested operation
Details: Test.VerifyForestUpgradeStatus.ADPrep.Win32Exception.-2147467259

OK, now. What seems to be the ‘problem’? I believe the new server being promoted to a DC is NOT seeing the network or any domain controllers correctly. Check these few possible issues/solutions:

  1. Is the new server pings any other domain controllers? Can you Telnet port 389? Fix the Network card (IP, subnet or bad driver)
  2. Is any Firewall between the new server to existing domain controllers? Check here what firewall ports needs to open – https://support.microsoft.com/en-us/help/179442/how-to-configure-a-firewall-for-domains-and-trusts
  3. Is this new server a VM? check it is connected to correct (software) swtich/VLAN.